The Carboniferous is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic that spans 60 million years from the end of the Devonian Period 358.9 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Permian Period, 298.9 million years ago. The name Carboniferous means "coal-bearing", from the Latin carbō ("coal") and ferō ("bear, carry"), and refers to the many coal beds formed globally during that time.
Terrestrial animal life was well established by the Carboniferous Period. Tetrapods (four limbed vertebrates), which had originated from lobe-finned fish during the preceding Devonian, became pentadactylous in and diversified during the Carboniferous, including early amphibian lineages such as temnospondyls, with the first appearance of amniotes, including synapsids (the group to which modern mammals belong) and reptiles during the late Carboniferous. The period is sometimes also called the Age of Amphibians, during which amphibians became dominant land vertebrates and diversified into many forms including lizard-like, snake-like, and crocodile-like.
Insects would undergo a major radiation during the late Carboniferous. Vast swaths of forest covered the land, which would eventually be laid down and become coal beds…
The later half of the period experienced glaciations, low sea level, and mountain building as the continents collided to form Pangaea. A minor marine and terrestrial extinction event, the Carboniferous rainforest collapse, occurred at the end of the period, caused by climate change.
At some point, forms of life developed methods of surviving on land and exploiting the abundant plant resources there. They became increasingly able, and animal life slowly moved onto the land, becoming less and less dependent on water. Entirely new ecosystems formed, completely unlike anything that had been seen underwater. Animals continued to eat plants, and plants continued to resist being eaten. Animals strove to overcome their resistance, and so on. But the relationships between plant and animals developed. [Life’s big step. But the exoskeletons got there first, I think. They become insects. Characterized by fast evolution through very high birth and death rate. We follow an amphibian-like family.]
Development of thought. This is the central character development.
Memories of the era:
- Heavy reliance on water. Can't venture too far from water
Damaged legs from predators. Striving for reproduction. Death.
Creature swam in blue-Green River which is at this point crawling with life. she swam through the water perceiving everything in stereoscopic. her eyes were huddled at the top of her head and she had a large jaw. There was an ecosystem on the River floor complete with forests of weed, and treelike plant life growing up of the River floor. Trunks and branches lay scattered on the ground, weed and plans clinging to them, which formed habitats of smaller fish who darted around Never far from the safety of their home.creature moved in long powerful strokes of her tail Moving like a scuba diver through the underwater forest. She moved slowly and calmly, side to side, scanning the floor something large enough to eat. The ebb and flow of the waves and current above that we would perceive were completely below her notice, and she took them for granted as how the world moved. Finding nothing, she allowed her body to sink, and rest on the sandy floor. She ha pair of strong muscular fins which propped her head up comfortably. The water World was green and blue but for her it was clear as day. In this environment, she was large but not the largest, and she preferred to hunt by lying on the riverbed, in disguise and waiting for her prey to swim past. With a powerful kick of her tail, she launched back into the stream and soon found an ambush site. swimming unprotected stream made the nervous, for they were others of her own species that were larger and cannibalistic. On occasion, when she had no other choice, she did the same but preferred to eat a Fish called Laccognathus, who often schooled in small numbers within the river.
After scanning the river bed, she had settled among a number of fallen logs they were l lined with moss and thus offered perfect cover.she sat there underneath the logs and felt the water rush by. A number of bottom feeders swam by, searching the sand for anything edible. They had hard outer skeletons and were difficult to eat. Before long, a soft bodied fish swam past in a flash of blue and grey scales right in front of her. She darted out and snagged the tail fin of the fish in her jaws, and blood spurted out into the water. The fish gasped with pain and shock. Creature bit down again, this time on the fishes body.the water clouded red and creature tasted the metallic taste of blood. She snapped her head around and the fish cleaved in two, its face falling into the sand. In a moment, that too was gone,shredded by powerful jaws. Creature ate, and in a few minutes it was all over. the Blood in the water washed away and the hunger in her stomach subsided. She lay back down, concealed among the logs to digest her meal while water flowed by And she fell into a state of semiconsciousness, her perception of where she was ebbing in and out.
When she awoke, she decided to patrol her surroundings. Her neighbourhood consisted of a great many fallen logs and stumps, and some areas choked with reed – like vegetation, particularly in the parts of the river with slower water flow. Soon she came to an edge of her territory, a border region. Here, the water speed increased and rocks piled up high, breaching the surface. Creature 's sat on the riverbed and watched the flowing water as she had done hundreds of times before. After a moment, she noticed a small difference in the rocks. It appeared as though a small rock, about her size, have become dislodged near the surface of water, perhaps big enough for her to swim through. she swam up, closerto the gap, blurred though it was by the bubbles of their from the surface and the Turbulent water.she neared the gap, but with our warning a surge of high-speed water seized her body and through her into the gap. Just as quickly, she Was thrown above the surface.
The air seared her gills. Despite her pain, she found herself stock on a rock above the surface, the water flowing around her. Instinctually, she flicked tail and edged forward. Again and again, each time cutting her skinon the rough surface of the rock finally, she fell over the other side and through the air. Then, she splashed into another pool of water, and into A turbulent whirlpoolat the base of the small waterfall. Water saturated her gills again, and she could breathe. She gasped, wide-eyed and it took a moment before she could take in her surroundings. This one was slow moving, and completely choked with vegetation, the same reed like of her previous pool. she settled to the bottom and rested on her fins. slowly, the pain subsided, though the gashes remained on her side.she tried swimming back the way she came though she was met only by the turbulent water at the base of the Waterfall. Before long, it was apparent that she could not go back that way, and the only thing to do was to move forwards.
She made her way through the forest of reeds, which impaired her vision which would be difficult for catching Food. They are grown from the river Floor all the way to the surface, and dominated water space with a dense network of vegetation. Creature made her way through slowly and after a while noticed a slight itching on her side where the gashes From the rocks were. Ignoring this, she moved on through the forest of reeds. But the itching grew worse, and before long she felt the stab of pain in her side and smelt her own blood in the water. Alarmed, she snapped tail And darted forwards in an attempt to dislodge whatever it was on her side but fresh burst of her blood saturated the water. With that, the water became alive with tiny black mites, Emerging from the reeds. They Latched on to her eyes, her gills, the gashes in her side, and her fins, and began to gnaw. blood poured From her, and at every instant more mites emerged from the reeds to cover her body.
she thrashed the tail and swam up and down, trying to dislodge the mites but the water was saturated with them. She dove down to the river Floor, and scraped her side against the rocks and fallen logs. Some fell off, but many more, creating a dark cloud in the water, took Their place and Bit into her side.
She looked up, frantic, and through the reeds she saw a distorted sky . She moved into position, thrashedher tail, and burst out of the water. The light was bright, but not blindingly so. She saw the pool that she was in, bounded on each side by land, covered in greenery. Her mouth gasped open, and her tail rose above her head, and she plummeted back into the water. The splash dislodged some of the mites, and she left the cloud of them behind, though within a few short seconds they caught up with her again, Their bites creating a fresh burst of blood from her fins.
she swam down to the bottom and repeated The action, again bursting out of the water and into the sky, once again she temporarily disloding her attackers. She glimpsed the sky again, and the dense green plants that populated the shore and beyond before crashing back down beneath the surface where again her vision was impaired by the dense weeds and the smell of her own blood in the water. The biting began again, and she burst forward, now near exausted from the strain.
Fear of such strength began to take control of her, that her body simply took charge and forced her mind away. She knew the mites would be upon her again in an instant, and again she swam to the bottom and propelled herself upwards, through the reeds and her own exaustion. She broke through the surface, soared, and landed with a boom that rippled through the water. A thousand red mouthes met her there. At the same time, creature felt a disruption in the water, a kind of incoming presence. Some of the mites scattered, others resolutely kept tearing at her flesh. Then a flurry of silver swept through the water, brushing past creature and filling her vision. The biting stopped, replaced with the soft brush of fins. She saw that they were tiny fish, moving in a frenzy through the water. And just as quick as they had arrived, they disappeared. Creature followed. The fish were agile, darting through the water but moving as a school. She saw them dark back and forth, pursuing the fleeing mites in the water. They tore through the slow moving water, and a number of them surrounded Creature and picked off any mites attracted to her her blood. Creature followed them, out of the kelp forest and into the fast moving water downstream.
[Something about how her fins can pull her up onto and across land]
The creature rode the slow ebb and flow of the surface, and lifted its eyes above. It saw a blue sky, and a land not quite barren. Just past the edge of the waves lay some plant matter, washed up by the waves. Its stomach rumbled with hunger. Creature swam towards the shore, Nearing the turmoil of the shallow waves. Her heart hammered in her chest As she got closer. Finally she reached the point of no return And plunged towards the shore
It wouldn't have been through the seeds that the first creature set foot on one, but through rivers and estuaries.
Creature new the bank and how old are self held her eyes of the water by the support of the fence on the sandy floor of the shallow river. Her mouth gates at the harsh air Of the atmosphere. It's harshness seared her gills, And she quickly retreated back underneath the water , Soothing her burnt gills. But the pain of her Gilles was soon replaced by the shop pain of hunger from her gut. She hadn't eaten in four days.. Again propping herself up on her fins she gazed above the level of the water at the vegetation of the shore but this time she did not hesitate. She marched forward into shallower and shallower water until finally her body was completely on the shoreline. Her fragile fins barely supported her weight out of water. With her tail she propel herself forward in the sand every movement a cacophony of pain as the Is the sand grated her gills and the air burnt them. But after a few agonising moments she was within reach of the green Shoreline plants. She tore chunks of them ignoring the pain in her sides And gorging on their dry sustenance. Then she turned, I began with the tail flung herself back into the shore of the river. The water washed away of the sands and dirt that clung to her gills and the pain slowly subsided, and her stomach was full.
When Creature was hungry and could find no prey or plants to eat she returned to the shoreline. One afternoon as the sun was sinking, she returned to her usual spot, and lifted her eyes just above the water. They dried quickly and has to be resubmerged often. In this brief glimpse she saw another of her species, thrashing on the sandy shoreline, eating the shoreline plants. [Ends with her mating]
Aka big ass scorpion
Scorpions have returned to their massive sizes in the oxygen rich atmosphere of the Carboniferous period. The largest of these were 8ft in length.
Arthropleura was a giant millipede the size of a car.
Mammals did not evolve from any modern group of reptiles. Soon after the first reptiles appeared, they split into two branches, the sauropsids and the synapsids. The line leading to mammals (the synapsids) diverged from the line leading to modern reptilian lines (the sauropsids) about 320 million years ago, in the mid Carboniferous period. Only later (in the late Carboniferous or early Permian) did the modern reptilian groups (lepidosaurs, turtles and crocodiles) diverge. The mammals themselves, being the only survivors of the synapsid line, are the "cousins" rather than "siblings" of modern reptiles. -Wikipedia, List of common misconceptions